Silicon and germanium are the most common and fundamental semiconductors. The crystalline structure of both silicon and germanium semiconductors is called the "diamond lattice."
FREMONT, CA: A simple definition of a semiconductor would be an electrical component that conducts electricity part of the time. Electricity is an integral part of our daily lives, and almost everywhere, it is present. There are appliances, television sets, satellite systems, and a wide range of smaller products that run off electricity in every home.
Electricity is often conducted by semiconductors, though only to a lesser degree than normal conductors. The amount of electricity carried out depends on the type of material used as well as the mixture and scale of the material. Semiconductors are made of special materials that cause the conductivity between an insulator and a conductor to be moderate. This means it has some unique physical properties somewhere between insulators such as glass and aluminum like conductors. To introduce impurities to pure semiconductors, a procedure called "doping" is used that changes the conductivity of the material.
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There are two main categories of semiconductors: Extrinsic and Intrinsic. Intrinsic semiconductors are made of very pure materials, which makes for very poor conductors. There is an equal number of negative and positive carriers called electrons and holes in the intrinsic semiconductors. An extrinsic semiconductor is one in which the doping phase, the adding of impurities, enhances conductivity. Two different semiconductor categories can be generated by doping: negative charge (n-type) or positive charge (p-type). Semiconductors are accessible as a compound or an element.
Silicon and germanium are the most common and fundamental semiconductors. The crystalline structure of both silicon and germanium semiconductors is called the "diamond lattice." This means that the atom is in the center, and all of its neighbors are located around the corners of the tetrahedron. There are several different semiconductors for pure elements, as well as alloys and compounds. There is some benefit of compound semiconductors in that they can have a vast spectrum of mobilities and energy gaps. This essentially implies that materials have properties and characteristics that conform to very precise specifications. There are several semiconductors that are known to be wide bandgap semiconductors.