Everything You Need to Know About Semiconductor Devices

Everything You Need to Know About Semiconductor Devices

A semiconductor diode is a device that consists of a single p-n junction in most cases. The depletion region fo-rmed by the junction of a p-type and n-type semiconductor is where current conduction is reserved due to the lack of mobile charge carriers.

Fremont, CA: Electronic components that take advantage of the electronic properties of semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors, are known as semiconductor devices. In many applications, semiconductor devices have replaced vacuum tubes. Instead of thermionic emission in a high vacuum, they use electrical conduction in the solid-state. Semiconductor devices are made for discrete devices and integrated circuits, which can include anything from a few to billions of devices on a single semiconductor substrate or wafer.

Transistor

Two p-n junctions in a p-n-p or n-p-n configuration form bipolar junction transistors. The area between the junctions, known as the middle or base, is usually very narrow. The emitter and collector are the other regions and their associated terminals. A small current pumped through the base-emitter junction changes the properties of the base-collector junction, allowing it to conduct current while being reverse biased. The base-emitter current controls the larger current generated between the collector and emitter.

Another type of transistor is the field-effect transistor, which works on the theory that an electric field can increase or decrease semiconductor conductivity. An electric field can change the conductivity of a semiconductor by increasing the number of electrons and holes in it. An electrode insulated from the bulk material by an oxide layer, which forms a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), or a reverse-biased p-n junction, which creates a junction field-effect transistor (JFET) (MOSFET).

Diode

A semiconductor diode is a device that consists of a single p-n junction in most cases. The depletion region formed by the junction of a p-type and n-type semiconductor is where current conduction is reserved due to the lack of mobile charge carriers. This depletion region is minimized when the system is forward biased, allowing for significant conduction; nevertheless, when the diode is reverse biased, only a small amount of current can be achieved, and the depletion region can be extended. When a semiconductor is exposed to light, electron-hole pairs are formed, increasing the number of free carriers and thus the conductivity. Photodiodes are diodes that have been optimized to take advantage of this phenomenon. Compound semiconductor diodes, as well as light-emitting diodes and laser diodes, are used to produce light.

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