Evolution toward 5G Multi-Tier Networks

Evolution toward 5G Multi-Tier Networks

Soon after the emergence of the 4G network, the representatives of the industry have been looking upon new technological developments towards the succeeding generation (5G). The technological foundations of the 5G have been recently launched by key international mobile operators, academic institutions and infrastructures manufacturers. In spite of all these innovations, the idea of 5G has not been crystal clear. 

5G is anticipated to incorporate the concept of multiple tiers in multiple ways, after the sequence from 2G to 3G to 4G-LTE, a defining focus of every new generation has been to supply higher speeds to handsets but the emerging needs are more complex. We’re now within the early stages of the prosperous explosion of the web of things. A number of the “things” represent a tier of devices that crave higher speeds. While others require long battery life and low costs quite high speeds. 

Working on LTE standards is already defining technology for this new tier of devices, designated as category-1 and category-0 devices. Under these assumptions, 5G will expand with further support for multiple tiers of devices, massive numbers of cheap low power devices, also as devices operating at ever higher speeds.

Backing for these higher speeds and capacities results in another sort of tiring within the specification. Heterogeneous networks known as HetNets, harmoniously combine conventional outdoor cell towers with the newer concept of Small Cells, located on buildings or maybe light poles.

LTE-Advanced also includes Carrier Aggregation, which mixes what previously would separate LTE carrier frequencies into a unified whole providing higher capacity and throughput. These LTE-Advanced features represent the introduction of a multi-tiered architecture, with an outsized cell tier, a little cell tier, and multiple frequency tiers unified into a coordinated whole. 5G networks are expected to create and extend these architectural concepts.

Each of the cellular technologies, from 2G to 3G to 4G-LTE, have taken advantage of advances in semiconductors and algorithms to gimmick to new and more efficient waveforms. LTE-Advanced and its continuation in evolution are highly efficient in existing cellular bands, and a move to 5G might not be justified just for further improvements in these bands. So as to handle the vast growth in wireless data demand, the industry is developing 5G to expand beyond the low, mid, and high bands of today’s cellular networks.

It is adding new technologies which will operate in even higher frequency bands, often mentioned as millimeter wave frequencies. These immense frequencies will be able to bring vast quantities of knowledge , using highly advanced antenna structures and signal processing techniques, but they also present a challenge; the propagation physics of those high frequencies means they need much shorter effective ranges than the frequencies utilized in today’s cellular networks.

One upcoming idea for 5G builds upon the strengths of LTE-Advanced, and boldly extends its HetNet and Carrier Aggregation concepts to integrate new millimeter wave technologies. During this arrangement, the evolution of LTE-Advanced technologies provides reliable control and coverage tier of a HetNet architecture. New millimeter wave technologies provide a capacity tier almost like LTE’s Small Cells that might aggregate with the control and coverage tier. Each technology tier leverages its strong points and compensates for the restrictions of the opposite tiers. 

5G networks are expected to create on and extend the framework of the concept. The new 5G structure could enable an opportunity from this past pattern. 5G could still use ever-evolving versions of LTE in current cellular bands, by adding new technologies in millimeter wave bands that employment synergistically with the evolved LTE. The comparison would be to repeatedly update the prevailing rooms of the house, and add new rooms to smoothly integrate with and complement the prevailing rooms. If 5G multi-tier networks follow this path, LTE would be truly living up to the promise inherent in its very name–Long Term Evolution.

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